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Different Type of Lamps for Luminous

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Different Type of Lamps for Luminous


  • Artificial luminous radiation can be produced from electrical energy according to two principles:
  • Incandescence: It is the production of light via temperature elevation. The most common example is a filament heated to white state by the circulation of an electrical current. The energy supplied is transformed into heat by the Joule effect and into luminous flux.
  • Luminescence: It is the phenomenon of emission by a material of visible or almost visible luminous radiation. A gas (or vapours) subjected to an electrical discharge emits luminous radiation (Electroluminescence of gases). Since this gas does not conduct at normal temperature and pressure, the discharge is produced by generating charged particles which permit ionization of the gas.
  • The nature, pressure and temperature of the gas determine the light spectrum. Photoluminescence is the luminescence of a material exposed to visible or almost visible radiation (ultraviolet, infrared).When the substance absorbs ultraviolet radiation and emits visible radiation which stops a short time after energization, this is fluorescence.

Incandescent lamps:

  • Incandescent lamps are historically the oldest and the most often found in common use. They are based on the principle of a filament rendered incandescent in a vacuum or neutral atmosphere which prevents combustion.
    A distinction is made between:
  • Standard Incandescent bulbs
  • These contain a tungsten filament and are filled with an inert gas (nitrogen and argon or krypton).
  • Halogen Incandescent bulbs
  • These also contain a tungsten filament, but are filled with a halogen compound and an inert gas (krypton or xenon). This halogen compound is responsible for the phenomenon of filament regeneration, which increases the service life of the lamps and avoids them blackening. It also enables a higher filament temperature and therefore greater luminosity in smaller-size bulbs.
    The main disadvantage of incandescent lamps is their significant heat dissipation, resulting in poor luminous efficiency.

Fluorescent lamps

  • This family covers fluorescent tubes and compact fluorescent lamps. Their technology is usually known as “low-pressure mercury”.
  • In fluorescent tubes, an electrical discharge causes electrons to collide with ions of mercury vapor, resulting in ultraviolet radiation due to energization of the mercury atoms.
  • The fluorescent material, which covers the inside of the tubes, then transforms this radiation into visible light.
    Fluorescent tubes dissipate less heat and have a longer service life than incandescent lamps, but they do need an ignition device called a “starter” and a device to limit the current in the arc after ignition. This device called “ballast” is usually a choke placed in series with the arc.
  • Compact fluorescent lamps are based on the same principle as a fluorescent tube. The starter and ballast functions are provided by an electronic circuit (integrated in the lamp) which enables the use of smaller tubes folded back on themselves.
  1. Fluorescent tube
  2. HP mercury vapour
  3. High-pressure sodium
  4. Low-pressure sodium
  5. Metal halide
  6. LED


Last Updated on Tuesday, 04 November 2014 04:47

L&T FM1QT Time Switch Programming Video

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FM1 QT Time Switches are used for a wide variety of applications. They are used for fixed time based daily/weekly applications. They are ideal for lighting applications (specially street lighting ) and are also used to control air conditioners in ATM, coolers, geysers, conveyors, pumps and exhaust fans.



Last Updated on Friday, 17 October 2014 11:57

Ingersoll Rand Service Centre

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Last Updated on Wednesday, 17 September 2014 10:13

Electrical Thumb Rules

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Size of Cable on Secondary Side of Transformer (11KV/433V)
Ref: KSEI Handbook
Rating of T/C (KVA) Primary current (Amp) Secondary Current (Amp) Min. Size of Neutral Earthing Conductor (mm2) Minimum Size of Cable (mm2)
63 3.3 84 25X3 50mm2
100 5.25 133.3 25X3 95mm2 or (2×50 mm2)
160 8.4 213.3 25X3 185mm2 or (2×95 mm2)
200 10.49 266.6 25X3 300mm2 or (2×120 mm2)
250 13.12 333 25X3 2×185 mm2
315 16.53 420 31X3 or 25X4 (2×300 mm2) or (3×185 mm2)
400 21.80 533 38X3 (3×300 mm2) or (2×400 mm2)
500 26.20 666.5 25X6 (3×400 mm2) or (4×240 mm2)
630 33 840 31X6 4×400 mm2
750 39.36 1000 50X4 Bus Bar Trucking (min. Isc 50KA)
1000 52.50 1333 210mm2 Bus Bar Trucking (min. Isc 50KA)
1250 65.50 1667 290mm2 Bus Bar Trucking (min. Isc 50KA)
1600 83.98 2133 380mm2 Bus Bar Trucking (min. Isc 50KA)
2000 105.00 2666 450mm2 Bus Bar Trucking (min. Isc 50KA)

Last Updated on Wednesday, 20 August 2014 13:46

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